The beneficiation technology is part of the beneficiation process. By analyzing the mineral properties, combined with the beneficiation test, the correct equipment selection is carried out through calculation, so as to obtain the high-grade concentrate required by the customer. In this process, the beneficiation test is the fundamental embodiment of the beneficiation technology.
The commonly used mineral processing methods and corresponding minerals are briefly described as follows:
1) Flotation: Flotation refers to the use of a surfactant-foaming agent that produces a large amount of bubbles. When air is introduced into the water or the air enters the water due to the agitation of the water, the hydrophobic end of the surfactant is oriented toward the air side of the bubble at the gas-liquid interface, and the hydrophilic end is still in the solution, forming a bubble; Surfactants that act as trapping agents (generally cationic surfactants, including fatty amines) are adsorbed on the surface of the solid mineral powder. This adsorption has a certain selectivity depending on the nature of the mineral. The basic principle is to utilize the lattice defects on the surface of the crystal, and the outer hydrophobic end is partially inserted into the bubble, so that the bubble may be designated during the flotation process. The ore powder is taken away to achieve the purpose of mineral processing.
A) Flotation equipment: mainly self-priming flotation machine, inflatable flotation machine, flotation column (rare), equipment type is often expressed by tank volume, such as SF2.8, SF4, etc.
B) Classification of medicaments: foaming agents, collectors, adjusting agents, etc. Different types of medicaments, including many kinds of medicaments, can be found through the mineral processing test to find the correct formulation and dosage.
C) Minerals commonly used for flotation: gold sulfide, copper, lead, zinc, pyrite, silver (generally as a by-product), barite (barium sulfate) graphite, fluorite (calcium fluoride), phosphorus
2) Re-election: gravity dressing. It refers to a beneficiation method that uses the difference in relative density, particle size and shape between the classified mineral particles and their difference in the rate and direction of movement in the medium to separate them from each other. In the re-election, the ratio of the relative specific gravity of the ore particles in the medium is usually used as an index to evaluate the ease of the re-election process.
A) Re-election equipment: jig, spiral chute, shaker, centrifugal concentrator
B) Minerals commonly used for re-election: tungsten, tin, gold, chromium, niobium, tantalum
3) Magnetic separation: Magnetic separation is referred to as magnetic separation. It is a beneficiation method for selecting minerals in a non-uniform magnetic field by utilizing the magnetic differences of various minerals. According to the magnetic field strength of the magnetic separator, the magnetic separation and weak magnetic separation can be divided; according to the medium used in the sorting, it is divided into wet magnetic separation and dry magnetic separation. Magnetic separation is widely used in the selection of ferrous metal ores (such as iron, manganese, chromium, etc.) and some non-metallic removal.
A) Magnetic separation equipment: dry magnetic separator, wet magnetic separator, high gradient magnetic separator (less used)
B) Minerals commonly used for magnetic separation: iron, manganese, chromium, etc., as well as some non-metal removal operations (potassium feldspar, quartz sand, etc.)